Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by inappropriately elevated blood glucose levels know as hyperglycaemia. Diabetes affects millions of people worldwide and rate of affected individuals is still rising gradually.

Types of diabetes:

There are several types of diabetes which include

1. Diabetes mellitus type 1

2. Diabetes mellitus type 2

3. Gestational diabetes

4. Maturity onset diabetes of young etc.

Diabetes mellitus type-1:

Diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2 are the main types of diabetes worldwide. Individuals with diabetes require life long treatment therapy as once the disease onset occurs, there is no one time treatment as in usual disease process.

Diabetes mellitus type-1

Diabetes mellitus type-1 is primarily because of insulin deficiency. In pancreas, there are two type of cells, alpha cells which secrete glucagon and beta cells which secrete insulin. Both cells are arranged in islets of langerhans. In diabetes mellitus type-1, insulin secreting beta cells are destroyed in the islets of langerhans and decreased or absolutely no insulin is secreted at all. Auto immune antibodies destroy the insulin secreting beta cells and eventually there is no insulin in the blood giving rise to chronically elevated blood glucose levels.

Diabetes mellitus type-2:

Diabetes mellitus type-2 is the second major type of diabetes. In this, adequate insulin levels are present in blood however patients have chronically elevated glucose levels because the insulin receptors of body do not respond to the insulin. Another factor involving decreased function of receptors is decreased sensitivity of the receptors known as insulin resistance. Insuline resistance or inappropriate response of receptors is multifactorial but primarily develops from obesity snd aging process.

Gestational diabetes:

Gestational diabetes is the type of  diabetes that manifests during pregnancy in an otherwise non diabetic female patient. Gestational diabetes is thought to develop due to elevated levels of other hormones e.g cortisol, prolactin, progesterone etc. however any exact cause is still unknown.

Maturity onset diabetes of young:

Maturity onset diabetes of young is a heterogeneous disorder identified by non-insulin dependent diabetes. It is  diagnosed at a young age usually under 25 years.  It is due autosomal dominant transmission and there are no antibodies destroying beta cells as in type-1 diabetes mellitus.

Causes of diabetes:

1. autoimmune antibodies

2. Obesity

3. Genetic or family history of diabetes

4. Several endocrine disorders

5. Sedentary lifestyle


Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia. It is common worldwide and affects a lot of individuals across various age groups. Type-1 diabetes is due to autoimmune antibodies destroying pancreatic beta cells which secrete insulin. Type-2 diabetes is due to insulin resistance at receptor levels. Adequate insulin is present in these patients however receptors do not respond to insulin and eventually elevated blood glucose levels result. Gestational diabetes is found to exist in pregnant women who do not have diabetes otherwise. Maturity onset diabetes is found in young age groups usually under 25 years. Worldwide causes of diabetes include autoimmune disorders, obesity, aging and genetic makeup susceptibility. Individuals with one or both parents having diabetes are at higher risk of developing disease.